Category Archives: Discrimination

What are the Legal Implications of Quitting Your Job?

What are the legal implications of quitting your job? Can you collect unemployment? Severance? What if you have a case and you quit (vs letting them fire you), will you still be able to take action? I answer all of those questions in this video.

My office gets a lot of calls from people who quit and still want to take action. This video details the critical things that lawyers look at in this situation.

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Filed under Age, Defamation, Disability, Discrimination, Employment Contract, FEHA, Harassment, Health Care, Layoffs, Leave of Absence, Pregnancy, Privacy, Race, Religion, Retaliation, Settlements, Severance, Wage & Hour, Whistleblower, Wrongful Termination

How to Complain to Human Resources the Right Way

As with all things in life, making a complaint at work is a risk. If you complain to human resources the wrong way, you might get fired (it happens far more often than people think). That is why I took the time to make a video about the correct way to complain to HR.

This video will explain the five things you need to know before you complain about your issue at work. It also covers how HR will react to your complaint and what you should expect if they conduct an “investigation.”

If you found this to be helpful, please leave a comment below.

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Filed under Abuse, Age, Defamation, Disability, Discrimination, Employment Contract, FEHA, Harassment, Health Care, Layoffs, Leave of Absence, Pregnancy, Privacy, Race, Religion, Retaliation, Settlements, Severance, Verdicts, Wage & Hour, Whistleblower, Wrongful Termination

What does being an “at-will employee” actually mean? Can I get fired for “any reason”?

This is a very common question. At-will employment does not mean that the company can fire you for any reason they want. That is incorrect. In this video, employment attorney Branigan Robertson explains the at-will doctrine and how it actually works.

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Filed under Abuse, Age, Defamation, Disability, Discrimination, Employment Contract, FEHA, Harassment, Health Care, Layoffs, Leave of Absence, Pregnancy, Privacy, Race, Religion, Retaliation, Settlements, Severance, Verdicts, Wage & Hour, Whistleblower, Wrongful Termination

Can Companies Fire Employees for Marijuana Use, Even Though Pot Is Legal in California?

Prior to 2016, it was illegal under state law to use marijuana recreationally — no matter how small the amount. Though things have changed significantly in California, and recreational use of marijuana is now legal under state law, there are still a lot of things employees need to consider when it comes to work place drug testing and job protection.

This article was written to unpack some of the issues surrounding marijuana use as it relates to California employment law. As a firm that primarily represents employees in employment disputes, it’s our job to protect workers. If you feel you’ve been treated unlawfully by an employer, give our office a call so that we can review the basic facts of your case.  Our office regularly handles discriminationharassment and wrongful termination cases.

Marijuana Legalization and California Employment Law

In 2016, Californians voted to approve Proposition 64, which amended sections of the state’s Penal, Business, Health and Tax Revenue codes. It is now legal for adults over the age of 21 to possess marijuana for recreational use. Use of marijuana for medical purposes, with the approval of a doctor, has been legal in California since 1996. 

With California now taking such a seemingly permissive attitude toward marijuana use, one might think that employers are legally required to give a pass to workers who smoke a little pot in their free time. After all, alcohol is legal, no one gets fired for enjoying a beer or two after work, right? Unfortunately, it’s not that simple.

The first thing that must be mentioned is that while recreational marijuana use is legal under California state law, it is still illegal under federal law. Alcohol doesn’t have that hiccup. While drug tests can determine if a person is under the influence of alcohol, booze leaves the system much faster than marijuana, which can remain in a person’s system at detectable levels for a month or longer. 

It’s completely legal for a California employer to fire an employee for recreational drug use.

Branigan Robertson

The second thing that people should know is that it is completely legal for an employer to fire an employee for legal recreational drug use. If the employer finds out that you are a user, they can fire you.

This is similar to when an employer fires someone for posting racist views on social media. It’s completely legal for you to be racist on your own time when you’re at home, but employers are allowed to fire people who have views like that. Why is this the case? Because CA (like many states) has the at-will doctrine. Due to the at-will doctrine, employers are allowed to fire employees for any reason except for reasons specifically deemed unlawful by CA’s legislature and court decisions. 

While there is reason to suspect that some companies have relaxed zero tolerance marijuana policies in the wake of Proposition 64, workers should not to assume their employers will automatically give employees who enjoy marijuana a pass.

Drug Testing and an Employee’s Right to Privacy

First and foremost, companies are allowed to drug test their employees. This is a practice that courts have upheld for years. However, in California, courts also acknowledge employee privacy. There are also anti-discrimination laws designed to protect employees.  

When and why a company decides to require employee to submit to a drug test can greatly affect whether a company runs afoul of the law.

At the core of the issue is how much privacy an employee is entitled to weighed against a company’s need to know the status of an employee’s drug use.

For instance, companies are generally allowed to drug test applicants prior to a job being offered. This is because an applicant’s right to privacy isn’t weighed as heavily as a long-term employee whose track record is well known to the company.

While random drug testing of existing employees can be a sticky issue for employers, there are certain industries where workers can expect to submit to random drug tests. Such industries include the airline or transportation industry. 

In other industries, customer service for instance, an employer would generally need a good reason to ask an employee to submit to a random drug test.

That said, state and federal law prohibits companies, with few exceptions, from singling out groups of people based on protected characteristics. This is important when it comes to how drug tests are administered to employees in the work force. Keep reading to learn more about workplace discrimination.

When Drug Testing Targets Certain Groups

California’s Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA) protects certain classes of people against workplace discrimination. Such protections prohibit discrimination based on gender, sexuality, race, national origin, pregnancy status or military status. 

As such, an employer can’t require random drug tests of only certain groups of employees while not applying the same standards to other groups of employees.  Furthermore, an employer who requires a worker to submit to a drug test because of membership in a protected class is engaged in unlawful behavior.

For instance, if a manager decided to test only the military veterans in the company because he read an article once stating that some veterans struggle with drug abuse, then that manager could potentially land the company on the hook for damages—particularly if an employee is terminated because of the discriminatory action.

If you believe you were required to take a random drug test because you are a member of a protected class, contact our office to schedule a consultation.

What About Employees Prescribed Medical Marijuana?

What about employees who are prescribed marijuana due to a disability?  Disability is a protected class, right?

Ironically, a 2008 California Supreme Court case found that employers can terminate employees that use medical marijuana, even if the marijuana has been prescribed by a doctor. The court reasoned that because the federal government, specifically the Americans with Disabilities Act, excludes protection for “any employee or applicant who is engag[ed] in the illegal use of drugs.” 

The state high court further argued that federal law has rejected the proposition that “marijuana has acceptable uses for medical treatment…” As a result, discrimination based on the use of medical marijuana “cannot be considered sufficiently substantial and fundamental to support a common law tort claim for wrongful discharge.”

When considering this, it’s important to keep in mind that employment law is complex, and there are many aspects to consider in a disability or wrongful termination case. The only way to know if you have a case, is to contact an employment lawyer.

If You Have Concerns, Contact a Lawyer

It’s important to note that attitudes toward medical and recreational marijuana continue to evolve. The best way to determine if you have been treated unlawfully by your employer is to contact a lawyer to review the facts of your case.

Though there are situations where employees can rightfully be subject to random drug tests and terminated for marijuana use, a good attorney can examine the facts of a case and determine if a company has acted unlawfully. An employee who is wrongfully terminated can potentially collect lost wages, back pay, pain and suffering damages, and in rare cases, punitive damages. 

If you feel you were unfairly targeted at work and required to take a drug test because you are a member of a protected class, contact the office of Branigan Robertson to schedule a consultation. Mr. Robertson won’t charge to review the basic facts of your case. If it turns out you have a case worth pursuing, our office often handles cases on a contingency basis. This means you don’t pay out of pocket fees.

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Filed under Discrimination, Wrongful Termination

Can Immigrants in California Sue for Discrimination or Wrongful Termination? What are the Risks?

The topic of immigration in America continues to spark passionate, and often vitriolic debate. But regardless of the different voices clamoring to be heard, the simple truth is that America was built by immigrants, and immigrants — whether documented or undocumented — contribute positively to the fabric of California. 

There are laws in place at both the federal and state level that protect both documented and undocumented immigrants from employment abuse. This means that immigrant workers are protected from unlawful discriminationharassmentwrongful termination and other workplace violations.Continue reading to learn a little more about immigration and employment law.

If you are an immigrant who is working in this country, lawfully or unlawfully, you have rights. If you feel you’ve been treated unfairly by an employer, contact our office to discuss your case. 

Immigrant Employment Rights – What Does the Law Say?

While employment law is complex, and there are many things to consider when pursuing action against an employer. Generally speaking, immigrants are covered by the same workplace protections that US citizens enjoy. The California Labor Code says:

All protections, rights and remedies available under state law…are available to all individuals regardless of immigration status who have applied for employment, or who have been employed, in this state.

Labor Code §1171.5(a)

Subsection (b) further states:

For purposes of enforcing state labor, employment, civil rights, consumer protection, and housing laws, a person’s immigration status is irrelevant to the issue of liability, and in proceedings or discovery undertaken to enforce those state laws no inquiry shall be permitted into a person’s immigration status unless the person seeking to make this inquiry has shown by clear and convincing evidence that the inquiry is necessary in order to comply with federal immigration law.

Labor Code §1171.5(b)

Beyond that, your former employer is prohibited from reporting or threatening to report your immigration status in retaliation for filing a lawsuit. CA Labor Code § 244(b)

California’s Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA), which protects all workers within the state, makes it unlawful for employers to discriminate against workers for any number of reasons including color, race, ancestry, and, most importantly for purposes of this article, national origin.

What Kinds of Protections Does the Law Provide Immigrants?

Thanks to laws like those mentioned in the previous section, immigrants are afforded many of the same rights as non-immigrant employees.  These protections cover:

  • Equal employment opportunities – non-discrimination
  • Disability rights
  • Harassment prevention
  • Freedom from other forms of discrimination
  • Rest and meal breaks
  • Overtime, PTO, minimum wage, and other wage & hour standards

If you’re an immigrant, whether in the country on a work visa or undocumented, and you believe you’ve experienced harassment, discrimination, or some other workplace violation, consider contacting an experienced employment lawyer to discuss the facts of your case.

But Wont My Employer Retaliate?

It is unlawful under California and federal law for an employer to retaliate against an employee because that employee reported a violation of workplace law, or refused to do something they thought was illegal. An employer who retaliates in this way, even against an immigrant employee, can potentially be liable for damages.

Documented Immigrants

Workers who are in the country on a work visa can be subject to retaliation. An employer who is upset at an immigrant worker for complaining about wage, safety, or meal break violations might threaten to cancel that worker’s visa and have them deported.  

Understandably the fear of losing one’s visa is often enough to keep an immigrant from speaking up for his or her rights (or the rights of others). If you are here on a work visa and your employer has retaliated against you unlawfully, contact our office to discuss the facts of your case.

Undocumented Immigrants

An undocumented worker has perhaps the most to fear when it comes to employer retaliation. According to the Economy Policy Institute, instances of immigration related retaliation appears to be on the rise. Workers in California filed 94 immigration related retaliation claims in 2017. This represented a sharp increase from 2016 in which there were only 20 claims. In 2015, there were only seven such claims. 

An undocumented immigrant might understandably be hesitant to contact an employment attorney for fear of retaliation by their employer. However, it’s important to remember that even undocumented immigrants have rights in the workplace and an after learning the facts of your case, a good attorney will be able to discuss the potential risks of pursuing legal action against your employer.

If your employer is threatening to contact ICE or another law enforcement agency because you reported a workplace violation of law, don’t hesitate to contact our office. Calls placed to our office are kept in the strictest of confidence.

Immigrant Employees Can Sue Their Employers

In addition to those laws, according to CA Labor Code § 1019, Immigrants can sue their employer for any unfair immigration related practice including:

  • Requesting more or different documents that are required by federal immigration laws,
  • Using the federal E-Verify system to check the employment authorization of a person at a time or in a manner not required under federal law,
  • Refusing to accept such documents when they reasonably appear on their face to be genuine,
  • Filing or threatening to file a false police report or a false report or complaint with any State or federal agency like the Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency (“ICE”), or
  • Contacting or threatening to contact immigration authorities.

What Can Immigrants Recover in an Employment Lawsuit?

Each case is different, and it’s impossible to answer this question with a specific dollar amount. That said, immigrant employees are entitled to recover the same damages as workers born or naturalized in the US. This includes the following:

Back Pay: Say an immigrant worker was paid less than the minimum wage for the time he or she was employed with the company.  The minimum wage in California is currently $12 hourly. Suppose a worker was only paid $9 hourly over a period of three years. If he or she successfully presses a claim, that worker could be eligible for back pay. If that employee regularly worked overtime, the final figure will increase.

Lost Wages: An employee who is found to have been wrongfully terminated might be entitled to lost wages. This is the money he or she would have earned had the termination not happened. Imagine an immigrant employee was making $45,000 annually, was wrongfully terminated as the result of retaliation, and unable to find work for three years. An immigrant who successfully pursues a case could be entitled to the normal salary over a period of three years. This would come out to $135,000.

Punitive Damages: These are the damages that often come in million-dollar amounts. They are designed to punish companies that act with malice, oppression or fraud. While proving these elements is difficult, it’s not unusual for a company that abuses immigrant labor to engage in behavior worthy of punitive damages.

Contact an Attorney to Discuss Your Case

Any settlement, no matter how big, is little comfort to a worker who faces deportation. That’s why it’s important to discuss with an attorney the risks and rewards an immigrant faces when deciding to sue an employer.

If you are an immigrant who believes you have been mistreated by an employer, contact our office to discuss your case. Rest assured, your information will be kept confidential. You have little to lose by talking to our firm.

If you have questions or concerns, contact Branigan Robertson’s office. Find out how we can help.


Filed under Abuse, Discrimination, Retaliation, Wrongful Termination

New Video! The Ultimate Guide to Discrimination Law

I am pleased to release another whiteboard video! This video is all about discrimination law. It details the legal definition of discrimination, the statute of limitations, how much cases are worth, what to do if you are still employed, quit, or have been fired, and much more.

If you want to learn more about unlawful workplace discrimination in California, visit our main discrimination page here.

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Filed under Discrimination, FEHA, Uncategorized